Recruitment, training and deployment of election observers

In the 2000 general elections, CODEO recruited, trained and deployed 5500 of its members to observe the December 7 presidential and parliamentary elections and the December 28 presidential Run-off elections. In 2004 , the Coalition deployed over 7000 domestic election observers nationwide to observe the presidential and parliamentary elections. The Coalition deployed 4000 observers in the 2008 elections. In the 2012 elections, CODEO deployed 4500 observers.

Collation, analysis and dissemination of reports generated from field observations

This enables the Coalition to track the election administration process and document them. The reports generated inform the interventions by key Ghanaian election stakeholders, such as the Electoral Commission (EC), National Peace Council, state security agencies, the National Commission for Civic Education (NCCE) and moral and cultural leaders to safeguard the integrity of the elections. CODEO also provides expert opinion and analyses of electoral issues and grants interviews to local and international media on issues relating to Ghanaian and African electoral administration and democratic governance.

Capacity Building of citizen's domestic election observation groups in Africa

CODEO members travel across Africa sharing experiences on independent and non-partisan coalition building, systematic and professional citizen observation methods and using new technologies to improve the accuracy and efficiency of domestic election observation. CODEO has worked with and supported citizens’ observer groups during elections in Nigeria, Liberia, Burundi, Niger, Mali, Sudan, and Senegal; and hosted citizens’ election observation groups from Kenya, Togo, Central African Republic, among others.

Independent verification of election results

In 2008, CODEO broke new grounds in domestic election observation in Ghana by deploying the Parallel Vote Tabulation (PVT), an advanced election observation methodology that enables observers to provide accurate and detailed information about the conduct of elections. CODEO repeated the PVT during the 2012 elections. Relying on SMS-technology, the PVT uses statistical techniques to deploy a nationally representative sample of polling stations across the country. The PVT enables CODEO to receive information from its election observers for rapid analysis and timely dissemination of findings to stakeholders and the public. The PVT enables CODEO to make a precise estimate of the presidential election results. Through the PVT, CODEO is able to independently verify the accuracy of the tabulation of votes, and the official presidential results declared by the Electoral Commission.

Electoral reform advocacy

CODEO has since its formation advocated for, and supported the necessary electoral reforms for improving electoral administration. CODEO observation reports make recommendations for consideration to the Electoral Commission and other election stakeholders. The objective of this intervention is to provide constructive recommendations for ensuring inclusive and credible implementation of electoral reforms in Ghana.

Civic and voter education

CODEO seeks to enhance citizen engagement in all phases of the electoral process through civic and voter education. CODEO’s objective is to complement the efforts of the National Commission for Civic Education (NCCE) and the Electoral Commission (EC) to deepen knowledge and understanding of the electoral rules and the democratic process.

Networking and collaborations

CODEO is a founding member of the West Africa Election Observers Network (WAEON). WAEON is a coalition of independent, non-partisan and non-religious organizations whose aim is to strengthen and support Citizens’ Election Observation Groups (CEOGs) in the sub-region. WAEON currently comprises 11 CEOGs in West Africa that subscribe to the Declaration of Global Principles for Non-partisan Election Observation and Monitoring by Citizen Organizations. (www.waeon.org)


CODEO is a member of the Global Network of Domestic Election Monitors (GNDEM). GNDEM brings together citizen observation efforts from around the world. As part of its effort to enhance citizen observation, GNDEM developed a ‘Declaration of Global Principles for Non-partisan Election Observation and Monitoring by Citizen Organizations’ that provides best practices for citizen observation. You can learn more about GNDEM and Global Principles for Citizen Observation at: www.gndem.org.


CODEO works with several local and international democracy and research institutions and civil society organizations on a variety of issues. These collaborations enhance the participation of citizens in national elections, including engagements with political parties and aspiring members of parliament on community level platforms. These platforms have also enhanced the ability of voters in the local communities to make informed electoral choices.

Our initiatives

Afrobarometer Logo


Instituted in 1999, Afrobarometer is a Pan-African, non-partisan survey research project that conducts...

CODEO-Ghana Logo


CDD-Ghana established the Coalition of Domestic Election Observers (CODEO) in the year 2000...


Corruption Watch

It seeks to promote integrity in public life by demanding and activating responsiveness and accountability ...

D&G Bootcamp

The overall goal is to promote and deepen democratic consolidation, good governance...


Freedom Project

The overall goal is to promote and deepen democratic consolidation, good governance...


I Am Aware

The I AM AWARE project is CDD-Ghana’s non-partisan citizen empowerment campaign..


WAEON is an independent, non-partisan, and non-religious organization...

WAYLead Fellowship

The overall goal is to promote and deepen democratic consolidation, good governance...